He was the personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who helped rebuild London after the Great Fire and who constructed the Royal Hospital Chelsea, which Charles founded as a home for retired soldiers in 1682. With Hyde’s help, Charles issued in April 1660 his Declaration of Breda, expressing his personal desire for a general amnesty, liberty of conscience, an equitable settlement of land disputes, and full payment of arrears to the army. Shortly after his restoration as English monarch in 1660, King Charles II granted the territory of Carolina to a number of supporters who had helped him regain the throne. En septembre 1665, le taux officiel de mortalité atteignait même 7000 victimes par semaine, nombre considéré comme largement inférieur au taux réel. An exclusive body of Anglican clergy and a well-armed landed gentry were the principal beneficiaries of Charles II’s restoration. The grant, however, proved to be insufficient for most of Charles's reign. [28], The English Parliament granted him an annual income to run the government of £1.2 million,[29] generated largely from customs and excise duties. 1665 (4th March) Second Anglo-Dutch War The English used the Dutch opening fire on English warships as an excuse to declare war on the Dutch. His vigorous attempts to save London during the Great Fire of September 1666 could not make up for the negligence and maladministration that led to England’s naval defeat in June 1667. However, the new Lord Protector had little experience of either military or civil administration. [40], Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. Bien que le Parlement d'Écosse ait proclamé Charles II roi d'Angleterre et d'Irlande à Édimbourg quelques jours plus tard, le Parlement d'Angleterre vote une loi interdisant une telle succession et entre dans un interrègne où le pays, devenu Commonwealth d'Angleterre, … The conflict began well for the English, with the capture of New Amsterdam (renamed New York in honour of Charles's brother James, Duke of York) and a victory at the Battle of Lowestoft, but in 1667 the Dutch launched a surprise attack on England (the Raid on the Medway) when they sailed up the River Thames to where a major part of the English fleet was docked. Charles II became King of Spain at the age of three, after his father died in 1665. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws passed by Parliament. L'espagne De Charles Ii Et La France 1665-1700 pas cher : retrouvez tous les produits disponibles à l'achat dans notre catégorie Histoire, actualité, politique Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Puritanism lost its momentum. The Scots forces were divided into royalist Engagers and Presbyterian Covenanters, who even fought each other. As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war. La question d’agrégation porte un titre, « Le siècle d’or en sursis. In retrospect, the use of the judicial system by Charles (and later his brother and heir James) as a tool against opposition, helped establish the idea of separation of powers between the judiciary and the Crown in Whig thought. Covers the period from October 1665 to July 1666. But though the early years of tawdry dissipation have tarnished the romance of his adventures, not all his actions were discreditable. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Etat de conservation: B à TB /TB. During the civil and military unrest that followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. They appealed to King Charles II to confer the land in question to them, and in 1665 an amendment was made to the Charter of Carolina that stated the king was “graciously pleased to enlarge our said grant unto them.” The northern boundary was extended to what is … Louis made peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions towards the Netherlands. The public blamed Catholic conspirators for the fire,[41] and one Frenchman, Robert Hubert, was hanged on the basis of a false confession even though he had no hand in starting the fire. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. Charles's eldest son, the Duke of Monmouth, led a rebellion against James II, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, captured and executed. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. [68] Protestant politicians such as the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sydney, Lord Russell and the Duke of Monmouth were implicated in the plot. [47] Clarendon fled to France when impeached for high treason (which carried the penalty of death). Charles II d’Espagne, l’enfant roi malade. [39], After a long spell of hot and dry weather through mid-1666, what later became known as the Great Fire of London started on 2 September 1666 in a bakehouse on Pudding Lane. The Corporation Act 1661 required municipal officeholders to swear allegiance;[32] the Act of Uniformity 1662 made the use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer compulsory; the Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England; and the Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited expelled non-conforming clergymen from coming within five miles (8 km) of a parish from which they had been banished. [80], Charles had no legitimate children, but acknowledged a dozen by seven mistresses,[81] including five by Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created. The death rate peaked in September when 7,165 peopledied in one week. [10], On 3 September 1650, the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar by a much smaller force led by Oliver Cromwell. [50] It remains unclear if Charles ever seriously intended to convert. However, with insufficient funds voted by Parliament, Charles was forced to gradually disband his troops. Charles’s reign opened with a 10-year regency under the queen mother, during which the government was preoccupied with combatting the ambitions of the French king Louis XIV in … Professor of History, King's College, University of London. Montrose feared that Charles would accept a compromise, and so chose to invade mainland Scotland anyway. D/ B. cuirassé à d., les cheveux longs, portant le collier de la Toison d''or. Whig Thought and the Revolution of 1688–91. [46] The Second Dutch War (1665–1667) was started by English attempts to muscle in on Dutch possessions in Africa and North America. 4 Inquisition -- Spain -- Early works to 1800. Respo Axe II; Vie religieuse et enjeux judiciaires de l'Antiquité aux Temps modernes; dictionnaire dévotions mariales; jésuites et protestants; projets ponctuels; Axe 3 : l’Etat et les citoyens Axe 3 : l’Etat et les citoyens. Il est le fils de la reine Henriette-Marie de France et du roi Charles Ier, exécuté au palais de Whitehall en 1649, au paroxysme de la première Révolution anglaise. Charles's wife Queen Catherine was unable to produce an heir; her four pregnancies had ended in miscarriages and stillbirths in 1662, February 1666, May 1668 and June 1669. Many members feared that he had intended to use the standing army to suppress dissent or impose Catholicism. ... Charles II returns to England from Holland and is restored to the throne. His efforts to extend religious toleration to his Nonconformist and Roman Catholic subjects were sharply rebuffed in 1663, and throughout his reign the House of Commons was to thwart the more generous impulses of his religious policy. (2013). On 22 March 1657 Charles II receives the appointment as Imperial Vicar in Italy. [44] The channel port, although a valuable strategic outpost, was a drain on Charles's limited finances.[e]. G.H. He would not exile past enemies nor confiscate their wealth. 1 real 1697 l h. lima 1 real 1697 l h. lima. After Charles I's execution at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War, the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649. The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. Charles II, byname The Merry Monarch, (born May 29, 1630, London—died February 6, 1685, London), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1660–85), who was restored to the throne after years of exile during the Puritan Commonwealth. As a result, in his lifetime he was often nicknamed "Old Rowley", the name of his favourite racehorse, notable as a stallion.[82]. Charles was their second child. What emperor was known as the “Little Corporal? Toggle facets Limit your search Subject. Rev. Mercuric poisoning can produce irreversible kidney damage; however, the case for this being a cause of his death is unproven. In his diary, Samuel Pepys gives a vivid account of the empty streets in London, as all who could had left in an attempt to flee the pestilence. [3] At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. One thousand pounds was a vast sum at the time, greater than an average workman's lifetime earnings. [65], Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, and bolstered by some acquittals in the continuing Plot trials, which seemed to him to indicate a more favourable public mood towards Catholicism, Charles dissolved the English Parliament, for a second time that year, in mid-1679. In 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled and Richard resigned. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland, and Ireland. By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, in 1660: By Barbara Villiers (1641–1709), wife of Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine and created Duchess of Cleveland in her own right: By Louise Renée de Penancoet de Kérouaille (1649–1734), created Duchess of Portsmouth in her own right (1673): By Mary 'Moll' Davis, courtesan and actress of repute:[97], Letters claiming that Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret bore Charles a son named James de la Cloche in 1646 are dismissed by historians as forgeries.